Urbanization and Industrialization have been ruling world since the rural community started growing and the impact of the Industrial revolution struck respectively. The growth of both processes paved the way for an emergence of the need for proper and perfect town planning systems. Town planning techniques which currently used are many, among them the most accurate, fast and versatile measurement technique is Lidar data process, as they create 3D city models. A successful and capable environmental management is rudimentary for ensuring and re-establishing the natural resources.
LiDAR is an active remote sensing service technology. LiDAR data (Light Detection and Ranging) can be defined as somewhat a relatively new technology which is immensely used for obtaining the Digital Surface Models (DSMs) of the surface of Earth. The data is highly useful as they can be combined with digital orthophotos that can create highly detailed Digital Surface Models (DSMs) and Digital City Models as well. It helps in acquiring the topographical information over surfaces at high Level of Detail (LoD), which is useful for the large-scale urban areas.
The 3D city models in urban areas are significant in many applications like military operations, disaster management, mapping of buildings and their heights, simulation of new buildings, updating and keeping data from the map, change detection and virtual reality. The data collected by LiDAR data processing is essentially useful for various kinds, like solar irradiance estimation for PV (photovoltaic) calculation, energy heating demand estimate, and the recognition and classification of building type and also this represents an important input for the SAP tool calculation.
LiDAR data processing, the use of the remote sensing service is highly establishing everywhere with an increasing demand for accurate and updated data for energy calculation for dwellings of the urban area and urban energy planners and decision makers, in a way that overcomes the limitations of plot and statistical information. It plays a vital role in today’s urban planning.
It is possible to create an estimated surface model of building from the original LiDAR data using special software. This technology allows creating huge area models in a very short span of time. Accurate digital models are needed today for many applications like Telecommunication and wireless communication, disaster planning, air and modeling of noise pollution and infrastructure planning.
Combined with GIS, LiDAR also helps to identify areas which are not previously mapped like new buildings and extensions not captured on base maps. Identifying these additions is highly useful for the emergency services, building inspectors, and understanding the implications for local infrastructure as well. In order to help the planners and engineers to demonstrate various scenarios for the purpose of calculating the best outcome of a proposed construction, new highway or development, this LiDAR data can be used respectively.
Before LiDAR, the available data were not sufficient for the purposes of urban planning, raising concerns related to the data processing regime and date of data capture. The knowledge of the site, images and visual inspection analysis allowed the recognition of other discrepancies. With the advancements in Lidar data processing, the task becomes really easy and simple.
The use of LiDAR was of help in resolving the definition barriers in the Geometry and Physics components. It allows the correct identification of individual buildings and a geo-referenced location of them, granting integration of the files and open-source resources.