Parcel mapping through GIS technique

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A digital record of land parcels or plots is a necessity of modern day administration of any country. In general these data is available in old paper maps and cloth mounted maps which are poorly maintained. In modern era, with every aspect of life is going digital, it is imperative to get the parcel/plot boundaries also in digital form for effective administration and as part of the e-governance initiatives. Land administration will be much easier with parcel boundaries in digital parcel map or Cadastral map. The Cadastral map is one of the basic registers that administration at village, town, city and country can have.

SBL Geospatial Services division is having in-house experience and expertise in executing such GIS services. Geographic Information System (GIS) is an appropriate tool used in mapping parcel boundaries. First step in such mapping process is geo-referencing of the parcel maps after converting the paper maps into raster format by scanning method. The ground control points required to register scanned images to the ground is possible through field surveying, from other georeferenced maps, from open source data. Geo-referenced parcel map can be used digitize the parcel boundaries through heads-up digitization. The mapped objects can be point, line or polygon. Added advantage of parcel mapping in this way is that, one can incorporate any number of attributes to the digitized parcel boundaries. This will explicitly give ownership details, history of ownership, change details of the properties and any other relevant information deemed fit for the purpose.

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The digital parcel map is the vital component of any cadastral system and is used for legal, administrative and economic decision making and an irrefutable input for planning and development. One of the most important and basic benefit is that individuals can easily come to know about the area of land under their ownership and other details of their own property. This will help government directly by getting right amount of tax without any evasion due to poor record maintenance and difficult retrieval process of the same. It will greatly help urban development departments by assessing accurately parcels and properties affected by any developmental program and decision making will be much easier as we know the impact beforehand. Municipality planning will also be much easier with a digital parcel map, as the department is having accurate details of properties under its jurisdiction.

Most suitable GIS software, ArcGIS is nominated for carrying out the parcel mapping work. Besides digitizing, attribute assignment and management and geo database management, topology building and checks will be very easy in this software platform. Parcel mapping services also include mosaicking or seamless joining of adjacent maps so that village, taluk or district level data can be viewed and analyzed simultaneously. This will be highly helpful for the decision makers. Unlike paper maps and cloth mounted maps, digital parcel will be easy to analyze for area calculations and other statistics. The final results of the parcel maps can be represented in the form of ready to print maps by applying cartography techniques to the mapping process. Standard mapping symbology can be used to demote boundaries of parcels and other details thus mapped.

The paper or cloth parcel map was observed as a static, plain view of preselected areas, available at fixed scales, but due to the advances of the geospatial technology, it is now progressing into a dynamic, recurrently updated network of interconnected databases with large amounts of geographically referenced information linked to a comprehensive central digital parcel database.