Remote sensing data provides much essential and critical information for monitoring many applications such as image fusion, change detection and land cover classification. Remote sensing is an important technique to obtain information of earth resources and environment.
What popularized the satellite imagery are the open-access applications like Google Earth, BING Maps etc. From being simply able to find “where is my house” these applications have helped GIS community in project planning, monitoring disasters and natural calamities, guiding and helping civil defense people etc.
Remotely sensed satellite images comprise of spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. Spectral statistics is the substance of remotely sensed image classification. The main aspect which influences the accuracy of ground object is the Spatial resolution. Temporal Resolution will help in generation of land cover maps for environmental planning, land use change detection and transportation planning. Data assimilation and analysis of urban areas using medium resolution remote sensing imagery is mainly concentrated on documentation of built up areas or for judgement between residential, commercial and industrial zones.
There are 100’s of applications of Satellite imagery. From the days of Landsat’s and SPOT’s satellite imagery and when nations used to use information derived from the satellite imagery for spying on each other under the guise of scientific experiments, industry has grown in leap and bounds and today every sphere of life, government decision making, civil defense operations, police, you name the sphere of life, every one of which is influenced by Satellite Imagery in particular and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in general.
SBL has pioneered in the field of Satellite Imagery processing and has got in-house expertise to handle any kind of sensor and product demands. Our projects have helped clients world over to help in having a better say in sustainability management and environmental assessment and management. An attempt is made and listed below to explain the uses of Satellite Imagery, even though the space given is not enough to cover all aspects of it.
1.Optimizing solar panel energy output with irradiance values.
Sustainable living has lot of interest in solar energy and it interest is growing rapidly across the world. Finding out location for placement of solar panels and If you were to choose a single position anywhere on Earth to install a solar panel, then we have to use Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) map. GHI measures the rate of total incoming solar energy at the Earth’s surface in watts per square kilometer. Epochs of satellite data (derived from GOES and Meteosat) has created this data with a standard error of only 5%.
2.Generating Earth’s surface elevation with the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission
The SRTM digital elevation data, produced by NASA originally, is a major breakthrough in digital mapping of the world, and provides a major advance in the accessibility of high quality elevation data for large portions of the tropics and other areas of the developing world. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) obtained elevation data on a near-global scale to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth. SRTM consisted of a specially modified radar system that flew onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour during an 11-day mission in February of 2000. SRTM is an international project spearheaded by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), NASA, the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and the German Aerospace Center (DLR).
3.Extracting mineral deposits with remote sensing based spectral analysis
During the pre feasibility and feasibility stages of the mineral exploration it is very essential to know the mineral potentiality of the area under consideration. In such scenario satellite remote sensing based lithological mapping, geological structural mapping, geomorphological mapping etc and its integration in a GIS platform will enable geo scientist to map the mineral potential zones. This will be further enhanced with the help of spectral analysis of satellite image bands to identify and map hydro thermal alteration zones which a indicators of mineral availability. This will enable exploration geologist to confine his geo physical, geo chemical and test drilling activities to high potential zones.
4.Giving that a basemap for graphical reference and assisting planners and engineers
The amount of details that an Orthoimagery produced using high resolution satellite imagery is of immense value and provides an extreme amount of detail of the focus and surrounding areas. Maps are designed to communicate highly structured message about the world. As maps are location-based, aerial imagery supports people to orient themselves.
5.Disaster Mitigation planning and recovery.
The result of a natural calamity can be calamitous and at times difficult to assess. But a disaster risk assessment is essential for rescue workers. This has to be prepared and executed quickly and with accuracy. Object-based image classification using change detection (pre- and post-event) is a quick way to get damage assessments. Other similar applications using satellite imagery in disaster assessments include measuring shadows from buildings and digital surface models.
Finance and accounting was one of the first…
..processes that companies outsourced, and the practice continues to boom. As the market matures, companies are now moving from input-based transactional services to contracting for outcomes where a BPM provider takes responsibility for their clients’ business results. Organizations are now focusing on going beyond a cost-savings mechanism, to achieving greater flexibility to scale and support their global operations.
F&A outsourcing, when done well, can provide your organization significant cost savings while delivering measurable value, process improvement and innovation.
With increasingly complex economic conditions and evolving technology, outsourcing F&A functions allow organizations to remain agile, act more strategically and make decisions that support the company as a whole, versus a sole business function.
This is about branching out of the back-office and stepping into the board room to make a difference in your company’s top and bottom line.
SBL is a dependable and professional organization that has won accolades from our clients in the U.S., UK, India and Australia. Our end-to-end services will allow your company to have continuous improvement in the F&A operation, while the company itself can focus on its core competencies.
eVidhan’s successful implementation in Himachal Pradesh State Assembly and subsequent facilitation of 4 consecutive Assembly sessions has drawn attention of other Indian states and has propelled their efforts in implementing e governance solutions for supporting effective Legislative process.
e governance solutions like eVidhan, support the Legislative Assemblies in improving the legislative process through tracking and monitoring entire Legislative Processes,implementing an effective Time Management during the sessions, improving the efficiency of processes through centralized data-flow across the stake holders and by reducing the operational costs and by making the whole process transparent to the Citizens and making them part of the process.
eVidhan System implemented in August 2014 at Himachal Pradesh Vidhan Sabha, has successfully facilitated all the sessions afterwards and has saved nearly Rs.15 crores of operational expenses by reducing the usage of paper & printing and file movement costs. This is in addition to the contribution to environmental protection & decrease in Carbon footprint.
Mobile application solutions along with the e governance solutions support the Hon’ble Members of Legislative Assemblies to access the day’s business 45 minutes before the start of the session. The system also facilitates them to access the information of the entire proceedings of the House in the digital form on their mobile phones and tablets immediately after the end of the day’s work.
eVidhan project is the first e governance solution for Legislative Assemblies in India and was developed as a joint venture between the Himachal Pradesh State Legislative Assembly, National Informatics Centre, National Informatics Centre Services Incorporated (NICSI), Government of Himachal Pradesh along with SBL.
Many directors are under the mistaken impression that shooting in 3D is inherently superior to converting post production. The hardware and software professionals are in a sort of constant race to prove who has the upper hand in 3D. As comparisons were made as to whether the computers could achieve what the 3D cameras do – the machines won, proving that they could do incredible work with anything that were shot with 3D cameras.
A hurried 3D upgrade got Clash of the Titans’ a bad name, however as more and more successful conversions popped up like Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows : Part 2, Thor and Captain America : The First Avenger, this stigma slowly subsided. As 2D to stereo 3D conversion techniques are becoming more sophisticated and are getting incorporated into films shot in 3D, more directors are resorting to a “hybrid” approach.
While dual cameras and a stereoscopic rig might produce better images, even films shot in native 3D nearly always have to rely on some post-production conversion. Directors now know that it is not always feasible to shoot films the way they do – on rollerblades, hanging from a helicopter or off the sides of cliffs – using these giant 3D rigs! The Cameron Pace Group, Burbank, California, is currently working in camera rigs capable of shooting in 5D, in which both 3D and 2D can be filmed simultaneously.
2D to 3D stereoscopic conversion saves a lot of time and headache since it makes the filming process easier as directors do not need to worry about getting a perfect shot during filming and it also avoids wastage of the actors’ time while setting up complex 3D rigs. It frees filmmakers to shoot their movie as they want.
Issues that may otherwise be difficult or even impossible to fix can be rectified using 2D to 3D conversion. Factors such as camera misalignment and lens mismatches can compromise a finished product. Even the slightest misalignment between the two cameras, can cause each frame to be captured from different points in time. In addition to this, the filmmaker will also have to consider the size and weight of the camera rigs and whether these can be mounted properly on the rig system intended for its use.
Some of the most common 3D shot problems that usually works its way into post production are Geometric Alignment errors, Colorimetric Alignment errors and exposure mismatches. Another issue that usually crops up is stereo window violations that can be very distracting for the viewers. Such uncomfortable violations need to be removed from the film and this can be very easily achieved using 2D to 3D conversion.
As time goes by, a film’s visual quality will not be decided by the source of the 3D – native 3D, 2D to stereoscopic 3D conversion or hybrid – as long as the various elements blend beautifully to create a 3D experience that swathes the viewers and leave them completely dumbfounded.
Digitization has three primary objectives: first, to preserve and protect irreplaceable originals from loss or excessive handling; second, to make the information contained within them available to a much wider audience; third, to combine information from several documents to form a composite data archive.
To ensure effective digitization it is vital to understand how the digitized material will be used and what benefits they need to deliver. This is defined at the process scoping phase with a close eye on the whole life of the digitized documents, including integration with the over-arching data ad IT strategy.
The digitization process is based on the document types (scanned images, manuscripts, etc), the volume of documents (large-scale digitization, selective digitization) and the core objectives which the digitized versions need to deliver. This process should adhere to quality control and evaluation standards to ensure the long-term life of the digitization.
- Selection & assessment of documents based on the clearly defined objectives
- Prioritization & preparation of documents for digitization
- Meta-data collection
- Digitization of documents
- Updating of digital records to repositories.
Prior to digitization it is important to consider how the documents will be indexed, stored and accessed by users. To this end it is essential to capture clear, comprehensive and detailed meta-data as part of the archive scope, architecture and creation.
Meta-data creation should consider and define all the relevant document attributes. It should be in accordance with the technical standards and user community defined guidelines to ensure long-term access of digitized documents.
SBL supports organizations to define and implement digitization processes. For more than a decade SBL has digitized billions of records for Government departments, Libraries and for Publishers. SBL’s ability to digitize multilingual records from different formats (including age-old manuscripts, microfilm, images) has added value to numerous international companies and organisations.
Remote sensing is a vital system to acquire information of earth resources and environment. Remotely sensed images comprise of spectral, spatial and temporal resolution. The introduction of High-resolution satellite imagery is projected to reduce cost for medium and small scale topographic mapping. Since high-resolution satellite imagery has a much close-fitting field angle, the projection of images is nearly calculated by parallel rather than central systems. Using high resolution we can extract valuable information that will serve as a reference to bigger data needs and planning.
The feature extraction stage is intended to obtain a solid, non-redundant and evocative demonstration of observations. It is accomplished by removing repetitive and irrelevant material from the data.
SBL has perfected its capabilities in 2D feature mapping in the form of base mapping, land use land cover mapping and other types of thematic mapping. This kind of remote sensing services requires the knowledge of pre-processing on the satellite images. These pre-processing steps includes geo-referencing for geometric corrections and image enhancement for radiometric corrections. Digitally enhanced and geo-referenced images can be (re)projected to real world co-ordinate systems to put it in use for 2D feature extraction.
GIS data represents real world entities and features such as roads, land use, elevation, trees, waterways, etc. In GIS all features are grouped under the classes of point, line or polygons. Points are the smallest entity in GIS. Land marks, spot heights and point features such as locations of wells, ATM’s etc. can be represented in the form of points. Lines constitute a series of points called vertices and nodes with a start point and an end node point. Transportation network, drainage network, telecommunication lines, power transmission lines, sewerage network and other utility and transport networks can be represented in the form of lines. Polygons are closed features in which a line has start point and end point the same and which will encompass an area within it. Parks, water bodies, residential areas and forests can be represented in the form of polygons.
For 2D feature extraction services SBL will follow a classification schema derived after the requirement and need study established with the end-client. For example, for a forest department forest land parcels along with hydrographic and transportation network will be captured. For a mining firm during their replacement and rehabilitation process residential buildings, plantations, and orchards may be the main concentration. The thematic mapping using 2D features will be established as per the project and need requirements and is designed with a long term vision of serving the future changes and developments.
GIS mapping for 2D features extraction can be possible through aerial photographs as well. The features can be extracted using image interpretation keys such as tone texture, size, shape, association ext. SBL’s experienced image interpreters will deduce the images to useful thematic categories based on the classification schema. The final stage of the GIS based mapping services is the cartographic layout preparation. Each and every mapped 2D features will be given with a suitable standard symbology and layout can be prepared based on standard cartographic norms. The above notes explains in general the 2D mapping approach adapted by SBL.